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Allen, George

First head of the Commonwealth Treasury 1901–16, Allen had been an accountant in the Victorian Treasury.

Anstey, Francis (Frank) George

Labor Party Member of the House of Representatives 1910–34 (Bourke), Minister for Health and for Repatriation (22 October 1929 – 3 March 1931) in the Scullin government, and assistant leader of the Federal Parliamentary Labor Party 1922–27. A friend and mentor of John Curtin, Anstey had been a Victorian parliamentarian 1902–10 and a foundation member of the Victorian Labor Federation and the Victorian Socialist Party.

Archibald, William Oliver

Labor Member of House of Representatives 1910–17, Nationalist Member of the House of Representatives 1917–19 (Hindmarsh). Minister for Home Affairs (17 September 1914 – 27 October 1915) in the third government of Andrew Fisher, Archibald left the Labor Party in the conscription split and joined the Nationalist Party in 1917. He was Minister for Trade and Customs (14 November 1916 – 17 February 1917) during the government of WM Hughes. He had been a founding member of the South Australian Labor Party and member of the South Australian Parliament 1893–1910.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 548.

Asquith, (Lord) Herbert Henry

Britain's Liberal Prime Minister 1908–16, during the Deakin, Fisher, Cook and Hughes governments.

Ataturk, Mustapha Kemal

Turkish soldier, nationalist and reformer, president of the Turkish republic 1923–38.

Baldwin, Stanley

Britain's Conservative Prime Minister 1923–24 and 1924–29 during the Bruce–Page government, and 1935–37 during the Lyons government.

Balfour, (Lord) Arthur James

Britain's Conservative Prime Minister 1902–05 during the Barton, Deakin, Watson and Reid governments, and Britain's Foreign Secretary 1916–19 during the Hughes government.

Bamford, Frederick William

Labor Member of the House of Representatives 1901–17 and Nationalist Member of the House of Representatives 1917–25 (Herbert). Minister for Home and Territories (14 November 1916 – 17 February 1917) in the Hughes government.

Barton, (Sir) Edmund

Protectionist Member of the House of Representatives 1901–03 (Hunter). Barton was Prime Minister and Minister for External Affairs 1901–03, and a judge of the High Court 1903–20.

Read more about Edmund Barton.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 710.

Bavin, (Sir) Thomas

Among the young federationists in Edmund Barton's circle, Bavin was appointed Prime Minister's private secretary in 1901 and served both Barton and Alfred Deakin. In 1904 when JC Watson became Prime Minister, Bavin resumed his Sydney practice as a barrister, coaching students including WM Hughes. Bavin was Deakin's co-correspondent to the London Morning Post 1907–11. Bavin later entered state politics and was premier of New South Wales 1927–30.

Beasley, John (Jack) Albert

Member of the House of Representatives 1928–46 (West Sydney) for the Labor Party, except in 1931–36 when he was a member of the Lang Labor Party and 1940–41 when he was a member of the Anti-Communist Labor Party. He was assistant Minister for Industry (22 October 1929 – 3 March 1931) in the Scullin government, Minister for Supply and Development (7 October 1941 – 17 October 1942), Minister for Supply and Shipping (17 October 1942 – 2 February 1945), Vice-President of the Executive Council (2 February 1945 – 6 July 1945) in the Curtin government, Minister for Defence and Vice-President of the Executive Council (6–13 July 1945) in the Forde government, Minister for Defence (13 July 1945 – 15 August 1946) in the Chifley government. Beasley also served on the Advisory War Council 1940–45.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 84.

Best, (Sir) Robert Wallace

Protectionist Senator for Victoria 1901–10, then Member of the House of Representatives (Kooyong) for the Deakin Liberal Party 1910–17 and the Nationalist Party 1917–22. Best was Vice-President of the Executive Council (20 February 1907 – 13 November 1908) and Minister for Trade and Customs in the third Deakin government (2 June 1909 – 29 April 1910). Best was a partner in the legal firm to which Harold Holt was articled in 1931. A strong supporter of the Australian Women's National League, Best was a frequent speaker at meetings and events in his electorate.

Blackburn, Maurice McCrae

Member of the House of Representatives 1934–43 (Bourke), Blackburn was expelled from the Labor Party 1935–37 for voting in favour of sanctions against Italy. Active in the Australia-Russia Friendship League, he was again excluded from the Labor Party in 1941 and did not re-join. An anti-conscriptionist in the 1916–17 campaigns, he was the only parliamentarian to vote against the introduction of overseas service for conscripts in February 1943. Blackburn campaigned against fascism from the early 1930s, and was president of the Australian Council of Civil Liberties from 1940.

Blakeley, Arthur

Labor Party Member of House of Representatives 1917–34 (Darling); Minister for Home Affairs in the Scullin government (22 October 1929 – 6 January 1932). He was Commonwealth Arbitration Inspector 1935–42 and an Arbitration Commissioner 1942–52. Blakeley was an anti-conscriptionist, and had been an organiser for the Australian Workers Union 1910–15, and president 1919–23.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 983.

Brennan, Francis (Frank)

Labor Party Member of House of Representatives 1911–31 and 1934–49 (Batman). Attorney General in the Scullin government (22 October 1929 – 6 January 1932), Brennan was a pacifist and anti-conscriptionist. He was a delegate to the League of Nations in 1930.

Bruce, (Lord) Stanley Melbourne

Member of the House of Representatives (Flinders) for the Nationalist Party 1918–29 and for the United Australia Party 1931–33. Treasurer (1921–23) during the Hughes government, Prime Minister 1923–29, Minister for External Affairs 1923–29, Minister for Health 1927–28, and Minister for Trade and Customs 1928. Bruce was honorary Minister in London 1932–33 during the Lyons government and High Commissioner in London 1933–45 during the Lyons, Page, Menzies, Fadden and Curtin governments.

Read more about Stanley Melbourne Bruce.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 23.

Chamberlain, Arthur (Neville)

Conservative Member of the House of Commons 1918–40 and Britain's Prime Minister 1937–40 during the Lyons, Page, and Menzies governments. Neville Chamberlain was the son of Joseph Chamberlain, in 1916 like his father he was Lord Mayor of Birmingham.

Charlton, Matthew

Labor Member of the House of Representatives 1910–28 (Hunter) and Leader of the Opposition 1922–28. Charlton was a delegate to the League of Nations in 1924. He had been a New South Wales parliamentarian 1903–10.

Chifley, Joseph Benedict (Ben)

Labor Member of the House of Representatives 1928–31 and 1940–51 (Macquarie) and Prime Minister and Treasurer (13 July 1945 – 19 December 1949). Chifley was Minister for Defence 1931–32 in the Scullin government, Treasurer 1941–45 in the Curtin and Forde governments, and Minister for Postwar Reconstruction 1942–45.

Read more about Ben Chifley.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 268.

Clemenceau, Georges

President of France 1906–09 and 1917–20, presided at the peace conference at Versailles in 1919.

Coles, Arthur William

Independent Member of the House of Representatives 1940–46 (Henty).

Cook, (Sir) Joseph

Member of the House of Representatives (Parramatta) for the Free Trade Party 1901–06, the Anti-Socialist Party 1906–10, the Deakin Liberal Party 1910–17 and the Nationalist Party 1917–21. Cook was Prime Minister and Minister for Home Affairs (1913–14), Minister for Defence in the Deakin government (1909–10), Minister for the Navy (1917–20) and Treasurer (1920–21) in the Hughes government, and High Commissioner in London 1921–27.

Read more about Joseph Cook.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 611.

Cook, (Dame) Mary

Prime ministerial wife 1913–14, Dame Mary Cook received the DBE for her wartime work for the Australian Red Cross Society.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 937.

Curtin, John Joseph

Labor Party Member of the House of Representatives 1928–31 and 1934–45 (Fremantle), Prime Minister (1941–45), Minister for Defence Coordination (1941–42), and Minister for Defence (1942–45).

Read more about John Curtin.

 

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 258.

Curzon, (Lord) George

British Foreign Secretary 1919–24 during the Hughes and Bruce–Page governments.

Deakin, Alfred

Member of the House of Representatives (Ballaarat) for the Protectionist Party 1901–10 and the Liberal Party 1910–13. Deakin was the first Attorney-General, in the Barton government (1901–03), Prime Minister three times (1903–04, 1905–08, 1909–10), and Minister for External Affairs in his own governments in 1903–04 and 1905–08. As a Victorian parliamentarian and leading federationist, Deakin had been a delegate to the 1890 Federation Conference and to both federation Conventions (1891 and 1897–98) and a member of the Constitution Bill deputation in London in 1900.

Read more about Alfred Deakin.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 9.

Deane, Percival (Percy) Edgar

Percy Deane was private secretary to Prime Minister WM Hughes in 1916–21, and secretary to the Australian delegation at the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919. One of the most influential Commonwealth government officials in the 1920s, he was permanent head of three departments: Prime Minister's Department (1921–29) and Department of External Affairs (1921–28) during the Bruce government, and Department of Home Affairs (1929–32) during the Scullin and Lyons governments.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 78.

Dwyer, Catherine (Kate) Winifred

A leading Labor activist, Dwyer was founding president of the women's organising committee of the Political Labor League in 1904 and a member of the New South Wales Labor Party executive. As a delegate at federal Labor Party conferences during three decades, Dwyer condemned the principle of compulsory military training, was a strong opponent of WM Hughes in the 1916–17 conscription referendum campaigns, and advocated child endowment, widow's pensions and educational reform. At the 1921 Labor Party Conference she voted against adoption of the 'socialist objective'. Dwyer formed the Women Workers'- Union and was a member of the Senate of the University of Sydney 1916–24. She was the sister of Labor activist Annie Golding.

Earle, John

Nationalist Party Senator for Tasmania 1917–23. Vice-President of the Executive Council (21 December 1921 – 5 February 1923) in the Hughes government.

Eggleston, (Sir) Frederic William

Australian Minister to China in 1941 and Australian Minister to the United States 1944–46. He was a member of the Australian delegation at the Versailles peace conference that established the League of Nations in 1919 and the San Francisco peace conference establishing the United Nations in 1945. In 1933 he became the first chairman of the Commonwealth Grants Commission and from 1946–49 was adviser in the United States to the Department of External Affairs. With his wife Louise he had been a 'Deakinite' Liberal, and later a member of the Liberal Party founded by RG Menzies.

Fadden, Arthur William

Country Party Member of the House of Representatives 1936–49 (Darling Downs) and 1949–58 (McPherson). Prime Minister and Treasurer August – October 1941. Fadden was acting Prime Minister January–May 1941, Minister for Air and Minister for Civil Aviation (14 August 1940 – 28 October 1940), minister without portfolio assisting the Treasurer (14 March 1940 – 14  August 1940), Minister Assisting the Treasurer (14 August 1940 – 28 October 1940), minister without portfolio assisting the Minister for Supply and Development (14 March 1940 – 13 August 1940), Minister Assisting the Minister for Supply and Development (14 August 1940 – 28 October 1940), Treasurer (28 October 1940 – 29 August 1941) in the first Menzies government. He again served as Treasurer (19 December 1949 – 10 December 1958) in the second Menzies government.

Read more about Arthur Fadden.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 714.

Fisher, Andrew

Labor Party Member of the House of Representatives 1901–15 (Wide Bay), Andrew Fisher was Minister for Trade and Customs in the Watson government in 1904, Prime Minister three times (1908–09, 1910–13, 1914–15), and Treasurer in each of his own three governments. Fisher was High Commissioner in London 1916–21.

Read more about Andrew Fisher.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 713.

Fisher, Margaret

Prime ministerial wife in 1908–09, 1910–13, and 1914–15.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 944.

Forde, Francis (Frank) Michael

Labor Party Member of the House of Representatives 1922–46 (Capricornia). Assistant Minister for Customs (22 October 1929 – 4 February 1931), Trade and Customs (4 February 1931 – 6 January 1932), Prime Minister (6 July 1945 – 13 July 1945) and Minister for the Army (7 October 1941 – 1 November 1946) in the Curtin and Chifley governments as well as his own, Minister for Defence (15 August 1946 – 1 November 1946) in the Chifley government.

Read more about Francis Forde.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 81.

Forrest, (Sir) John

Member of the House of Representatives (Swan) for the Protectionist Party 1901–06, West Australia Party 1906–10, Deakin Liberal Party 1910–17, and the Nationalist Party 1917–18. Postmaster-General (1–10 January 1901) and Minister for Defence (10 January 1901 – 24 September 1903) in the Barton government, Minister for Home Affairs in the Deakin government (24 September 1903 – 27 April 1904), Treasurer (5 July 1905 – 30 July 1907) in the second Deakin government, Treasurer in the third Deakin government (2 June 1909 – 29 April 1910), and Treasurer (24 June 1913 – 17 September 1914) in the Cook government, Treasurer (17 February 1917–27 March 1918) in the Hughes government. Forrest had been Premier of Western Australia 1890–1901.

Foster, Richard Wakefield

Member of the House of Representatives (Wakefield) for the Anti-Socialist Party 1909–10, the Deakin Liberal Party 1910–17, the Nationalist Party 1917–28. Minister for Works and Railways (21 December 1921 – 9 February 1923) in the Hughes government.

Fuller, (Sir) George Warburton

Member of the House of Representatives (Illawarra) for the Free Trade Party 1901–06, the Anti-Socialist Party 1906–10, and the Deakin Liberal Party 1910–13. Minister for Home Affairs in the third Deakin government (2 June 1909 – 29 April 1910). Fuller had been a NSW parliamentarian 1889–94 and Free Trader and he returned to state politics in 1915, serving as Premier from 1922–25.

Gardiner, Albert

Labor Senator for New South Wales 1910–26 and in 1928, Vice-President of the Executive Council (17 September 1914 – 27 October 1916) during the third government of Andrew Fisher and the Hughes government. Gardiner was expelled from the Labor Party for his opposition to the Jack Lang faction in 1927. He had been a New South Wales parliamentarian 1891–95.

Garran, (Sir) Robert Randolph

Appointed first head of the Attorney-General’s department and parliamentary draftsman on 1 January 1901, Garran remained in this post until 5 February 1932. He served the governments of ten prime ministers, Barton, Deakin, Watson, Reid, Fisher, Cook, Hughes, Bruce, Scullin and Lyons. As a young Sydney federationist in Barton’s circle, Garran had been secretary to the 1897–98 Constitutional drafting committee.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 396.

George V, King

Grandson of Queen Victoria, son of King Edward VII, as Duke of York opened first Commonwealth parliament in 1901, with Queen Mary British monarch 1910–36.

Glynn, Patrick McMahon

Member of the House of Representatives 1901–03 (South Australia) and 1903–19 (Angas). Glynn was a member of the Free Trade Party 1901–06, the Anti-Socialist Party 1906–10, the Deakin Liberal Party 1910–17 and the Nationalist Party 1917–19. Attorney-General in the third Deakin government (2 June 1909 – 29 April 1910), Minister for External Affairs in the Cook government (24 June 1913 – 17 September 1914), and Minister for Home and Territories in the Hughes government (17 February 1917–3 February 1920). As a South Australian parliamentarian and federationist, Glynn was an influential delegate at the 1897–98 federation convention.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 3.

Goldstein, Vida

Victorian suffragist, political reformer, and pacifist, Goldstein was among the few women to contest federal elections before 1920. She stood unsuccessfully for a Senate seat in 1903 and in the four elections 1910-17. Goldstein also worked for the British and United States suffrage organisations. She marched with Margaret Fisher in the major suffrage demonstration in London in 1911. The Hughes government ordered surveillance of her activities against conscription in 1915-17 and in 1919, with Cecilia John, she was Australian delegate to the women’s peace conference held in Zurich simultaneously with the Versailles Conference.

Griffin, Walter Burley

United States architect who, with Marion Mahoney Griffin, provided the original design for Australia’s national capital in 1913, but was removed as architectural director in 1920.

Griffith, (Sir) Samuel Walker

First Chief Justice of the High Court 1903–19, Griffith had attended the 1890 Federation Conference and was a major figure in drafting the original Constitution at the 1891 federation Convention. He was Premier of Queensland 1883–88, and Queensland Chief Justice 1893–1903.

Groom, (Sir) Littleton Ernest

Member of the House of Representatives (Darling Downs) 1901–29 and 1931–36, Groom was Minister for Home Affairs and then Attorney-General (12 October 1906 – 13 November 1908) replacing Isaac Isaacs in the second Deakin government, Minister for External Affairs in the third Deakin government (2 June 1909 – 29 April 1910), and Minister for Trade and Customs in the Cook government (24 June 1913 – 17 September 1914). In the Hughes government he served as honorary Minister (17 February 1917 – 16 November 1917), Vice-President of the Executive Council (16 November 1917–27 March 1918), Minister for Works and Railways (27 March 1918 – 21 December 1921), and Attorney-General (21 December 1921 – 9 February 1923). In the Bruce–Page government he was Attorney-General (9 February 1923 – 18 December 1925), Minister for Trade and Customs and Minister for Health (29 May – 13 June 1924). From 1926–29 he was Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Gullett, (Sir) Henry Somer

Nationalist/United Australia Party Member of the House of Representatives 1925–40 (Henty), Minister for Trade and Customs (24 November 1928 – 22 October 1929). In the Bruce–Page government, in the Lyons government Minister for Trade and Customs (6 January 1932 – 14 January 1933), and minister without portfolio directing negotiations for Trade Treaties (12 October – 11 March 1937). Gullett accompanied SM Bruce to the Imperial Economic Conference in Ottawa in 1932. In the first Menzies government Gullett was Minister for External Affairs (26 April 1939 – 14 March 1940) and Minister for Information (12 September 1939 – 14 March 1940), and Vice-President of Executive Council (14 March 1940 – 13 August 1940), Minister in charge of Scientific and Industrial Research (14 March 1940 – 13 August 1940), and Minister Assisting the Minister for Information (14 March – 13 August 1940). Gullett had been an Australian war correspondent 1915–18. He was one of the three Cabinet ministers killed in an air crash at Canberra on 13 August 1940.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 530.

Heagney, Muriel Agnes

A founding member of the Labor Party in Victoria, delegate to the Labor women’s central organising committee in 1909 and attended the first Victorian Labor Women’s Conference. Heagney was trade union investigator to the Hughes government’s basic wage royal commission in 1919–20, and prepared the cost-of-living schedules for the Clothing Trades Union’s submission to the uniform basic wage case before the Conciliation and Arbitration Court. In 1937 a founder of New South Wales Council of Action for Equal Pay. In 1955 secretary of the Labor women’s central organising committee and ex officio member of the Victorian Labor Party central executive.

Higgs, William Guy

Labor Member of the House of Representatives 1910–20, Independent 1920, Nationalist 1920–22 (Capricornia). Treasurer (27 October 1915 – 27 October 1916) in the Hughes government.

Holman, William Arthur

United Australia Party member of House of Representatives 1931–34 (Martin). A backbencher in the Lyons government, Holman was a former Premier of New South Wales (1913–20) and state parliamentarian 1898–1917 (Labor) and 1917–1920 (Nationalist). In 1911 Holman had been a powerful opponent of the Fisher government’s referendum seeking greater Commonwealth powers over industry, trade and commerce. With JC Watson, Joseph Cook and WM Hughes, he had been a founding member of the New South Wales Labor Electoral League in 1891.

Howse, (Sir) Neville Reginald

Nationalist Party member of House of Representatives 1922–29 (Calare), Minister for Defence and Minister for Health (16 January 1925 – 2 April 1927), honorary Minister (2 April 1927 – 24 February 1928), Minister for Home and Territories (24 February – 29 November 1928), and Minister for Health (24 February 1928 – 22 October 1929) in the Bruce–Page government. A surgeon, Howse had been director of medical services for the Australian army in 1915 and had given evidence to the Dardanelles Commission in 1917. He was a member of Australia’s delegation to the League of Nations in 1923 and in 1925 he helped found the Federal Health Council, and in 1928, the College of Surgeons of Australasia.

Hughes, (Dame) Mary

Prime ministerial wife 1915–23.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 943.

Hughes, William Morris

Member of the House of Representatives 1901–17 (West Sydney), 1917–22 (Bendigo), 1922–49 (North Sydney) and 1949–52 (Bradfield). Hughes was a member of the Labor Party 1901–17, the Nationalist Party 1917–29, an ‘Independent Nationalist’ 1929–31, United Australia Party 1931–44, Liberal Party 1944–52. Prime Minister (1915–23), Hughes still holds the record as Australia’s longest serving parliamentarian. He was a Minister in the governments of Watson (1904), Fisher (1908–09, 1910–13 and 1914–15), Lyons (1932–39), Page (Attorney-General, Minister for Industry and Minister for External Affairs (7 April 1939 – 26 April 1939), Menzies (Attorney-General 26 April 1939 – 29 August 1941, Minister for Industry 26 April 1939 – 28 October 1940, Minister for the Navy 28 October 1940 – 29 August 1941), and Fadden (continuing as Attorney-General and Minister for the Navy 29 August 1941 – 7 October 1941). During the term of his own government he also served as Attorney-General (27 October 1915 – 21 December 1921), Minister for Trade and Customs (29 September 1916 – 14 November 1916), Minister for External Affairs (21 December 1921 – 9 February 1923). As a New South Wales parliamentarian 1894–1901 Hughes was a founding member of the Labor Party in New South Wales. He became a founding member of the Nationalist Party in 1917, the United Australia Party in 1931, and the Liberal Party in 1945.

Read more about William Morris Hughes.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 290.

Hume-Cook, James Newton Haxton

Protectionist Member of the House of Representatives 1901–10 (Bourke) and minister without portfolio (28 January – 13 November 1908) in the second Deakin government. Hume Cook was a firm Deakinite and a member of the Australian Natives Association, and had been a Victorian parliamentarian and federationist. From the 1914–18 war he was loyal friend of WM Hughes, and the prominent secretary of the Australian Industries Protection League from 1922–41.

Jensen, Jens August

Member of the House of Representatives (Bass) for the Labor Party 1910–17 and for the Nationalist Party 1917–19. Assistant Minister (17 September – 12 July 1915) and Minister for the Navy (12 July – 27 October 1915) in Andrew Fisher’s third government, Minister for the Navy (27 October 1915 – 17 February 1917) and Minister for Trade and Customs (17 February 1917 – 13 December 1918) in the Hughes government.

John, Cecelia Annie

Anti-conscriptionist and pacifist, with Vida Goldstein formed the Women’s Peace Army in 1915 calling for the abolition of conscription and militarism. In 1919 an Australian delegate at the Women’s International Peace Conference in Zurich. John worked for the International Red Cross, and formed the Australian Save the Children Fund. She had been a Victorian suffragist and member of the Women’s Political Association.

Keating, John Henry

Protectionist/Deakin Liberal Party Senator for Tasmania 1901–23, minister without portfolio (5 July 1905 – 12 October 1906), Minister for Home Affairs (24 January 1907 – 13 November 1908) and Vice-President of the Executive Council (12 October 1906 – 20 February 1907) in Deakin’s second government. At 28, he was the youngest member of the first parliament. Keating had been an active Tasmanian federationist and was a member of the Australian Natives Association.

Lamond, Hector

Nationalist Member of the House of Representatives 1917–22 (Illawarra). Assistant Minister for Repatriation and Honorary Minister (12 December 1921 – 9 February 1923) in the Hughes government.

Latham, (Sir) John Greig

Nationalist/United Australia Party Member of the House of Representatives 1922–34 (Kooyong), Latham was Attorney-General (18 December 1925 – 22 October 1929) in the Bruce–Page government, and from 6 January 1932 – 12 October 1934 in the Lyons government. He was Leader of the Nationalist Party Opposition 1929–31 during the Scullin government. From 1935 until 1952, Latham was Chief Justice of the High Court, with an interval in 1940–41 when he was Australian Minister to Japan. Latham had been a member of the Australian delegation to the Versailles peace conference in 1919.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 148.

Lloyd-George, David

Liberal member of Britain’s House of Commons 1890–1945 and Prime Minister 1916–22, when WM Hughes was Prime Minister of Australia, and during the terms of George Reid and Andrew Fisher as High Commissioner in London.

Locke, Lillian Sophia

Tasmanian delegate at 1905 federal Labor Party conference, a suffragist and organising secretary of the Political Labor Council of Victoria, worked with her husband, George Burns, as an industrial organiser in Queensland.

Lynch, Patrick Joseph

Labor Party Senator for West Australia 1907–17, Nationalist Senator for Western Australia 1917–38. Minister for Works and Railways (14 November 1916 – 17 February 1917) in the Hughes government.

Lyons, Joseph Aloysius

Labor Member of the House of Representatives 1929–31 and United Australia Party member 1931–39 (Wilmot), Postmaster-General and Minister for Works and Railways 1929–31 in the Scullin government, Prime Minister 1932–39, Treasurer 1932–35, Minister for Health, and Repatriation 1935–36. Lyons had been a Tasmanian parliamentarian 1909–28 and was state Premier 1923–28.

Read more about Joseph Lyons.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 254.

Mahon, Hugh

Labor Member of the House Representatives 1901–13 (Coolgardie), and 1913–17 and 1919–20 (Kalgoorlie). Mahon was Postmaster-General in the government of JC Watson (27 April – 18 August 1904), and Minister for Home Affairs in Andrew Fisher’s first government (13 November 1908 – 2 June 1909). He was Fisher’s Minister for External Affairs in his third term (17 September 1914 – 27 October 1915) and in WM Hughes Labor government (27 October 1915 – 14 November 1916). In 1920 Hugh Mahon became the only member ever expelled from the federal parliament, after he had attacked British policy in Ireland at a public meeting.

Makin, Norman John Oswald

Labor member of House of Representatives 1919–46 (Hindmarsh), 1954–55 (Sturt), and 1955–63 (Bonython). Speaker of House of Representatives 1929–32. Makin was Secretary to the federal parliamentary Labor Party 1934–41, and a member of the Advisory War Council 1940–45. In the Curtin, Forde and Chifley governments, he was Minister for the Navy and Minister for Munitions (7 October 1941 – 15 August 1946), Minister for Aircraft Production (2 February 1945 – 15 August 1946). Makin was Australia’s first Ambassador to the United States (4 September 1946 – 27 April 1951), and was awarded the Order of Australia in 1980.

Mannix, (Archbishop) Daniel

Catholic Archbishop of Melbourne 1912–1963, Mannix strongly opposed conscription during the First World War, and was a friend of James Scullin. After the Labor Party split in 1954–55, Archbishop Mannix supported the Anti-Communist Labor Party, later known as the Democratic Labor Party.

Massy-Greene, (Sir) Walter

Member of the House of Representatives for the Deakin Liberal Party 1910–17 and the Nationalist Party 1917–22 (Richmond). Nationalist Party Senator for New South Wales 1923–25 and 1926–38. Honorary Minister in charge of matters relating to price-fixing (27 March 1918 – 17 January 1919), Minister for Trade and Customs (17 January 1919 – 21 December 1921), Minister for Health (10 March 1921 – 5 February 1923), Minister for Defence (21 December 1921 – 5 February 1923) in the Hughes government, Minister Assisting the Leader of the Government in the Senate (6 January 1932 – 23 June 1932) and assistant Treasurer (6 January 1932 – 25 September 1933) in the Lyons government.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 170.

McKenna, Francis (Frank) Joseph

Briefly assistant private secretary to Prime Minister Hughes, McKenna was appointed secretary of the Prime Minister's Office in Canberra in 1927. He was private secretary to Prime Minister Lyons 1933–35, and deputy secretary of the Prime Minister’s Department 1952–55.

Menzies, (Sir) Robert Gordon

United Australia Party/Liberal Party Member of the House of Representatives (Kooyong) 1934–66 and Prime Minister 1939–41 and 1949–66. During his terms as Prime Minister he also served as Treasurer (26 April 1939 – 14 March 1940), Minister for Defence Co-ordination (13 November 1939 – 29 August 1941), Minister for Trade and Customs (23 February 1940 – 14 March 1940), Minister for Information (14 March 1940 – 13 December 1940), Minister for Munitions (11 June 1940 – 28 October 1940), Vice-President of the Executive Council (7 March 1951 – 11 May 1951), Minister for External Affairs (4 February 1960 – 22 December 1961), Minister in charge of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (22 December 1961 – 16 February 1962). In the Lyons government Menzies had been Attorney-General (1934–39) and Minister for Industry (1934–39). In the Fadden government he was Minister for Defence Co-ordination (29 August 1941 – 7 October 1941). He had been a Victorian parliamentarian 1928–34.

Read more about Robert Menzies.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 54.

Millen, Edward Davis

Senator for New South Wales 1901–23, Millen was a member of the Free Trade Party 1901–06, the Anti-Socialist Party 1906–13, the Deakin Liberal Party 1913–17, and the Nationalist Party 1917–23. He was Vice-President of the Executive Council in the third Deakin government (2 June 1909 – 29 April 1910), Minister for Defence in the Cook government (24 June 1913 – 17 September 1914), Vice-President of the Executive Council (17 February – 16 November 1917), and Minister for Repatriation (28 September 1917 – 9 February 1923) in the Hughes government.

Miller, David

First head of the Department of Home Affairs in November 1901, and administrator of the Federal Capital Territory (ACT) from 1912 until his retirement in 1917. Colonel Miller had been commander of the New South Wales Corps 1900–01 in the Boer War.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 278.

Miller, Emma

An organiser for the Australian Workers Union in western Queensland in the 1890s and the first woman member of the Brisbane Workers Political Organisation, Miller championed equal pay and equal opportunity for women and was foundation president of the Women’s Equal Franchise Association (1894–1905). In 1908 she was a delegate to the federal Labor Party conference, and in 1916 a delegate to the Australian Peace Alliance conference. In her late seventies Miller campaigned against the conscription referendums in 1916–17.

Munro Ferguson, (Sir) Ronald Craufurd (Viscount Novar)

Governor-General of Australia 18 May 1914 – 6 October 1920.

Murdoch, (Sir) Keith Arthur

Newspaper proprietor and founder of the Australian Journalists Association (1910), the cable service Australian Associated Press (1935), and Australian Newsprint Mills (1938). David Syme had given Murdoch a job on the Age newspaper in 1904, and in 1908 Alfred Deakin, then Prime Minister, provided him with letters of introduction in London. As Commonwealth parliamentary reporter for the Age 1910–12, he became a friend of Andrew Fisher and WM Hughes. Political correspondent for the Sydney Sun from 1912, he was transferred to London in 1915 and secretly reported to Fisher from Gallipoli on the mismanagement of the Anzac campaign. He was the only Australian journalist at the peace conference at Versailles in 1919, and returned to Melbourne as chief editor of the Herald in 1920. With financial support from Clive Baillieu and others, by 1935 he had acquired newspapers in Sydney, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth, and eleven commercial radio stations. In 1940 RG Menzies appointed him wartime director-general of information, a short-lived post. He retired in 1949 and died in 1952, leaving his media holdings to his son Keith Rupert Murdoch.

O’Malley, King

Labor Member of the House of Representatives 1901–03 (Tasmania) and 1903–17 (Darwin), Minister for Home Affairs in the second Fisher government (29 April 1910 – 24 June 1913), and from 27 October 1915 – 14 November 1916 in the Hughes Labor government. Born in North America, O’Malley had settled in Tasmania, and was active as a federalist and parliamentarian there.

Orchard, Richard Beaumont

Member of the House of Representatives 1913–19 (Nepean) for the Deakin Liberal Party, then the Nationalist Party. Honorary Minister (27 March 1918 – 31 January 1919) in the Hughes government.

Page, (Sir) Earle Christmas Grafton

Country Party Member of the House of Representatives 1919–61 (Cowper). Prime Minister 7–26 April 1939, Page was Treasurer and deputy Prime Minister in the Bruce–Page government (9 February 1923 – 22 October 1929), Minister for Commerce in the Lyons government (9 November 1934 – 26 April 1939) and also Minister for Health (29 November 1937 – 7 November 1938). Page was also Minister for Commerce (28 October 1940 – 7 October 1941) in the first Menzies and Fadden governments, and Minister for Health (19 December 1949 – 11 January 1956) in the Menzies government.

Read more about Earle Page.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 715.

Pankhurst (Walsh), Adela

Anti-conscription activist and member of the Women’s Political Association in Victoria with Cecelia John and Vida Goldstein from 1914. Pankhurst was organiser for the Victorian Socialist Party from 1917 and with her husband Tom Walsh, a foundation member of the Communist Party of Australia in 1920. The Walshes left the Party in 1925 and Adela Pankhurst formed an Australian branch of the British Guild of Empire. In 1937 with PR Stephenson she formed the anti-imperialist Australia First movement and advocated a trade pact with Japan as a means of averting war. The Walshes visited Japan in 1939 and Adela Pankhurst was arrested and interned in 1941–42 for her advocacy of peace with Japan. She had been a suffragette in Britain, her mother was veteran British suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst.

Pearce, (Sir) George Foster

Senator for Western Australia 1901–38, Pearce was a member of the Labor Party 1901–17, the Nationalist Party 1917–31, and the United Australia Party 1931– 38. He was Minister of Defence in the three governments of Andrew Fisher (13 November 1908 – 2 June 1909; 29 April 1910 – 24 June 1913 and 17 September 1914 – 27 October 1915). In the Hughes government he was Minister for Defence (27 October 1915 – 21 December 1921) and Minister for Home and Territories (21 December 1921 – 9 February 1923). With Hughes, Pearce left the Labor Party over the conscription issue in 1917 and formed the Nationalist Party. In the Bruce–Page government Pearce was Minister for Home and Territories (9 February 1923 – 18 June 1926), and Vice-President of the Executive Council (18 June 1926 – 22 October 1929). From 1929 to 1931 Pearce led Opposition members in the Senate, he was then Minister for Defence (6 January 1932 – 12 October 1934), Minister for External Affairs and Minister for Territories (12 October 1934 – 29 November 1937), in the Lyons government. In 1939 Pearce was a member of the Commonwealth Grants Commission.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 151.

Poynton, Alexander

Member of the House of Representatives 1901–03 (South Australia) and 1903–22 (Grey) for the Free Trade Party 1901–03, the Labor Party 1903–17, and the Nationalist Party 1917–22. Treasurer (14 November 1916 – 17 February 1917), Honorary Minister (27 March 1918 – 4 February 1920), Minister for Home and Territories (4 February 1920 – 21 December 1921), Postmaster-General (21 December 1921 – 5 February 1923) in the Hughes government.

Pratten, Herbert Edward

Nationalist Senator for New South Wales 1917–21, Nationalist Member of the House of Representatives 1921–22 (Parramatta) and 1922–28 (Martin), Minister for Trade and Customs (13 June 1924 – 7 May 1928) and Minister for Health (13 June 1924 – 16 January 1925) in the Bruce–Page government. Pratten had been a Sydney businessman, from 1889 a softdrinks manufacturer, a printer and a pioneer jam maker. He developed interest in goldmining, and in tin mining in Malaya. He gave up his businesses when he became a member of parliament in 1917.

Reid, Sir George Houstoun

Free Trade/Anti-Socialist Party Member of the House of Representatives 1901–10 (East Sydney) and Prime Minister and Minister for External Affairs 1904–05, Reid was also Leader of the Opposition 1901–04 and 1905–08. From 1910–16 he was Australian High Commissioner in London, and from 1916 until his death in 1918 a member of the British House of Commons. Reid had also served in the New South Wales parliament 1880–84 and 1885–1901, and was Premier in 1894–99.

Read more about George Reid.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 712.

Robinson, William Sydney

A mining industrialist and businessman, Robinson developed the Australian aluminium industry and the mining and export of uranium. In the 1914–18 war he established companies for the local smelting of lead and zinc. He developed investment in goldmining, forming the Western Mining Corporation in 1933. He also fostered local manufacture of aircraft from 1936 and the supply and processing of base metals during the 1939–45 war.

Rodgers, Arthur Stanislaus

Liberal/Nationalist Party Member of the House of Representatives 1913–22 and 1925–29 (Wannon). Assistant Minister for Repatriation and Honorary Minister (28 July 1920 – 21 December 1921), Minister for Trade and Customs (21 December 1921 – 5 February 1923) in the Hughes government.

Russell, Edward (Teddy) John

Labor Party Senator for Victoria 1907–25. Assistant Minister (17 September 1914 – 27 October 1915) in the third Fisher government, assistant Minister (27 October 1915 – 17 February 1917) and Honorary Minister (17 February 1917 – 17 January 1919), Vice-President of the Executive Council (27 March 1918 – 21 December 1921) in the Hughes government.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 679.

Ryan, Thomas Joseph

Labor Member of the House of Representatives 1919–21 (West Sydney), Ryan had been a Queensland parliamentarian 1909–21 and Premier 1915–19.

Ryrie, (Sir) Granville de Laune

Liberal/Nationalist Party Member of the House of Representatives 1911–22 (North Sydney) and 1922–27 (Warringah). Assistant Minister for Defence and honorary Minister (4 February 1920 – 21 December 1921) in the Hughes government, High Commissioner in London 1927–32, member of Australian delegation to League of Nations 1927, 1928 and 1929. Ryrie had been a New South Wales parliamentarian 1906–10.

Scott, Rose

Political reformer and founding member of the Womanhood Suffrage League of New South Wales in 1891, the National Council of Women (NSW) in 1896, and the Women’s Political Educational League in 1902. Scott was a prominent anti-conscriptionist.

Scullin, James Henry

Member of the House of Representatives 1910–13 and 1922–49 (Yarra). Prime Minister, Minister for External Affairs and Minister for Industry 1929–32, Treasurer 1930–31.

Read more about James Scullin.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 63.

Shepherd, Malcolm Lindsay

First head of the Department of the Prime Minister 1911–21; official secretary to the High Commissioner in London 1921–27; and head of the Department of Defence 1927–37. Shepherd had been recruited to the new Commonwealth Postmaster-General’s Department in 1901 from the New South Wales department he had joined as a typist in 1890. In 1904 he became private secretary to Alfred Deakin, then to prime ministers JC Watson, George Reid, and Andrew Fisher. He became a friend of WM Hughes, and while at the High Commission was Australian representative on the Pacific Cable Board and the Imperial War Graves Commission.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 25.

Smith, William Henry Laird

Member of the House of Representatives for the Labor Party 1910–22 and the Nationalist Party 1917–22 (Denison). Assistant Minister (14 November 1916 – 17 February 1917), Honorary Minister (4 February 1920 – 28 July 1920), Minister for the Navy (28 July 1920 – 21 December 1921) in the Hughes government.

Spence, William Guthrie

Labor Party Member of the House of Representatives 1901–17 (Darling) and Nationalist Party Member of the House of Representatives 1917–19 (Darwin). Postmaster-General (17 September 1914 – 27 October 1915) in the third Fisher government, Vice-President of the Executive Council (14 November 1916 – 17 February 1917) in the Hughes government.

Spender, Percy Claude

Independent/United Australia Party/Liberal Party Member of the House of Representatives 1937–51 (Warringah). Vice-President of the Executive Council (26 January 1940 – 14 March 1940), minister without Portfolio assisting the Treasurer (26 April 1939 – 3 November 1939), Treasurer (14 March 1940 – 28 October 1940) in the first Menzies government; Minister for the Army (28 October 1940 – 7 October 1941) in the first Menzies and Fadden governments and a member of the Advisory War Council; Minister for External Affairs (19 December 1949 – 26 April 1951) in the second Menzies government. In 1950–51 Spender was vice President of the 5th United Nations General Assembly in New York, and was Australia’s Ambassador to the United States 1951–58. Spender was president of the International Court of Justice at The Hague in 1964–70.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 692.

Stewart, Percy Gerald

Country Party member of House of Representatives 1919–31 (Wimmera), Minister for Works and Railways (9 February 1923 – 5 August 1924) in the Bruce–Page government, and president of the River Murray Commission 1923–24. Stewart had been a Victorian parliamentarian 1917–19 and was a foundation member of the Country Party. He turned the first sod on the Parliament House site in Canberra on 28 August 1923.

Tracey, Ray

Prime Minister’s driver and assistant at The Lodge 1930s–1950s.

Tudor, Francis (Frank) Gwynne

Labor Party Member of the House of Representatives 1901–22 (Yarra), and Minister for Trade and Customs in the three governments of Andrew Fisher (13 November 1908 – 2 June 1909, 29 April 1910 – 24 June 1913, and 17 September 1914 – 27 October 1915) and from 27 October 1915 – 14 September 1916 in the Labor government of WM Hughes. Tudor resigned from Hughes’ Cabinet over the conscription issue and replaced Hughes as leader of the federal parliamentary Labor Party after Hughes’ expulsion from the Labor Party in November 1916. He was leader until his death on 10 January 1922.

Watson, John Christian (Chris)

Labor Party Member of the House of Representatives 1901–06 (Bland) and 1906–10 (South Sydney), Watson was first Labor Prime Minister, and Treasurer, for four months in 1904.

Read more about Chris Watson.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 711.

Watt, William Alexander

Liberal/Nationalist Party Member of the House of Representatives 1914–29 (Balaclava). Minister for Works and Railways (17 February 1917 – 27 March 1918), Treasurer (27 March 1918 – 15 June 1920), Minister for Trade and Customs (13 December 1918 – 17 January 1919) in the Hughes government. Watt was acting Prime Minister in 1918–19 while Hughes was in London. He had been a Victorian parliamentarian and was Premier of Victoria 1912–13.

Webster, William

Member of the House of Representatives (Gwydir) for the Labor Party 1903–17 and the Nationalist Party 1917–19. Postmaster-General (27 October 1915 – 3 February 1920) in the Hughes government.

Wilson, Woodrow

Democratic Party President of the United States of America 1912–21.

Wise, George Henry

Member of the House of Representatives (Gippsland) for the Protectionist Party 1906–10, the Labor Party 1910–13, as an Independent 1914–17, and for the Nationalist Party 1917–22. Honorary minister (27 March 1918 – 4 February 1920), Postmaster-General (4 February 1920 – 21 December 1921) in the Hughes government.

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