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Allen, George

First head of the Commonwealth Treasury 1901–16, Allen had been an accountant in the Victorian Treasury.

Anstey, Francis (Frank) George

Labor Party Member of the House of Representatives 1910–34 (Bourke), Minister for Health and for Repatriation (22 October 1929 – 3 March 1931) in the Scullin government, and assistant leader of the Federal Parliamentary Labor Party 1922–27. A friend and mentor of John Curtin, Anstey had been a Victorian parliamentarian 1902–10 and a foundation member of the Victorian Labor Federation and the Victorian Socialist Party.

Archibald, William Oliver

Labor Member of House of Representatives 1910–17, Nationalist Member of the House of Representatives 1917–19 (Hindmarsh). Minister for Home Affairs (17 September 1914 – 27 October 1915) in the third government of Andrew Fisher, Archibald left the Labor Party in the conscription split and joined the Nationalist Party in 1917. He was Minister for Trade and Customs (14 November 1916 – 17 February 1917) during the government of WM Hughes. He had been a founding member of the South Australian Labor Party and member of the South Australian Parliament 1893–1910.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 548.

Arthur, John Andrew

Labor Member of House of Representatives 1913–14 (Bendigo) and Minister for External Affairs (17 September – 9 December 1914) during the third government of Andrew Fisher. A Victorian barrister, in 1907 Arthur had represented the Agricultural Implement Makers Union in the Harvester Case.

Asquith, (Lord) Herbert Henry

Britain's Liberal Prime Minister 1908–16, during the Deakin, Fisher, Cook and Hughes governments.

Barton, (Sir) Edmund

Protectionist Member of the House of Representatives 1901–03 (Hunter). Barton was Prime Minister and Minister for External Affairs 1901–03, and a judge of the High Court 1903–20.

Read more about Edmund Barton.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 710.

Barton, (Lady) Jane

Jane Barton was prime ministerial wife 1901–03. She was afterwards foundation president of the Queens Club in Sydney; and had been a vice-president of the Sydney Women's Federation League in 1899.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 930.

Batchelor, Egerton Lee

Labor Party Member of the House of Representatives 1901–03 (South Australia) and 1903–11 (Boothby). Minister for Home Affairs in the government of JC Watson (27 April 1904 – 18 August 1904), and Minister for External Affairs in Andrew Fisher's first government (13 November 1908 – 2 June 1909) and from 29 April 1910 – 8 October 1911 during Andrew Fisher's second government. He attended the 1911 Imperial Conference with Andrew Fisher, where he was the principal Australian spokesman on trade and foreign policy. Batchelor had been a South Australian parliamentarian from 1893 to 1901 and was one of the founders of the Labor Party in South Australia.

Boote, Henry Ernest

Labor journalist and author, founding editor of the Gympie Truth (1896–1902), the Queensland Worker (1902–11), and the Australian Worker (1914–43). A fervent anti-conscriptionist, Boote was a friend of Prime Ministers Andrew Fisher, James Scullin and John Curtin.

Bridges, (Sir) William Throsby

Founding commandant of the Royal Military College, Duntroon (1911–14) and founding commander of the Australian Imperial Force (1914–15), Major-General Bridges died after he was wounded in the first month of the Gallipoli campaign in 1915.

Charlton, Matthew

Labor Member of the House of Representatives 1910–28 (Hunter) and Leader of the Opposition 1922–28. Charlton was a delegate to the League of Nations in 1924. He had been a New South Wales parliamentarian 1903–10.

Cook, (Sir) Joseph

Member of the House of Representatives (Parramatta) for the Free Trade Party 1901–06, the Anti-Socialist Party 1906–10, the Deakin Liberal Party 1910–17 and the Nationalist Party 1917–21. Cook was Prime Minister and Minister for Home Affairs (1913–14), Minister for Defence in the Deakin government (1909–10), Minister for the Navy (1917–20) and Treasurer (1920–21) in the Hughes government, and High Commissioner in London 1921–27.

Read more about Joseph Cook.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 611.

Curtin, John Joseph

Labor Party Member of the House of Representatives 1928–31 and 1934–45 (Fremantle), Prime Minister (1941–45), Minister for Defence Coordination (1941–42), and Minister for Defence (1942–45).

Read more about John Curtin.

 

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 258.

Dawson, Andrew (Anderson)

Labor Party Senator for Queensland 1901–06 and Minister for Defence in the government of JC Watson (27 April – 18 August 1904), Dawson had been a Queensland parliamentarian (1893–1901) and in 1899–1900 was Premier of the first Labor government in Australia.

Deakin, Alfred

Member of the House of Representatives (Ballaarat) for the Protectionist Party 1901–10 and the Liberal Party 1910–13. Deakin was the first Attorney-General, in the Barton government (1901–03), Prime Minister three times (1903–04, 1905–08, 1909–10), and Minister for External Affairs in his own governments in 1903–04 and 1905–08. As a Victorian parliamentarian and leading federationist, Deakin had been a delegate to the 1890 Federation Conference and to both federation Conventions (1891 and 1897–98) and a member of the Constitution Bill deputation in London in 1900.

Read more about Alfred Deakin.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 9.

Deakin, Elizabeth Martha Anne (Pattie)

Prime ministerial wife 1903–04, 1905–08, and 1909–10, Pattie Deakin was active in the Deakin Liberal Party and in numerous Victorian organisations including the Lyceum Club and the National Council of Women.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 932.

Demaine, William Halliwell

Queensland Labor parliamentarian 1917–22 and 1937, strong anti-conscriptionist and founder and editor of the labour weekly Alert (1898–1939).

Denham, Digby Frank

Queensland businessman and parliamentarian (1902–15) and Premier (1911–15) during the 1912 general strike in Queensland.

Denman, (Lord) Thomas

Governor-General of Australia 31 July 1911 – 18 May 1914, during the Fisher and Cook governments.

Dudley, (Lord) William Humble Ward

Governor-General of Australia 9 September 1908 – 31 July 1911, during the Deakin and Fisher governments.

Dwyer, Catherine (Kate) Winifred

A leading Labor activist, Dwyer was founding president of the women's organising committee of the Political Labor League in 1904 and a member of the New South Wales Labor Party executive. As a delegate at federal Labor Party conferences during three decades, Dwyer condemned the principle of compulsory military training, was a strong opponent of WM Hughes in the 1916–17 conscription referendum campaigns, and advocated child endowment, widow's pensions and educational reform. At the 1921 Labor Party Conference she voted against adoption of the 'socialist objective'. Dwyer formed the Women Workers'- Union and was a member of the Senate of the University of Sydney 1916–24. She was the sister of Labor activist Annie Golding.

Edward VII, King

Eldest son of Queen Victoria. With Queen Alexandra, British monarch 1901–10 and Australia's head of state during the Barton, Deakin, Watson, Reid and Fisher governments.

Findley, Edward

Labor Party Senator for Victoria 1904–17 and 1923–29, minister without portfolio in the second government of Andrew Fisher (20 April 1910 – 24 June 1913). Findley served on government inquiries into the tobacco monopoly (1905–06), newspaper cable services (1909) and beam wireless links with England (1929), and was a government appointee to the Commonwealth Oil Refineries (1930–47). He had been briefly a Victorian parliamentarian in 1901 before being expelled for an article in Tocsin, the radical newspaper he published.

Fisher, Margaret

Prime ministerial wife in 1908–09, 1910–13, and 1914–15.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 944.

Forrest, (Sir) John

Member of the House of Representatives (Swan) for the Protectionist Party 1901–06, West Australia Party 1906–10, Deakin Liberal Party 1910–17, and the Nationalist Party 1917–18. Postmaster-General (1–10 January 1901) and Minister for Defence (10 January 1901 – 24 September 1903) in the Barton government, Minister for Home Affairs in the Deakin government (24 September 1903 – 27 April 1904), Treasurer (5 July 1905 – 30 July 1907) in the second Deakin government, Treasurer in the third Deakin government (2 June 1909 – 29 April 1910), and Treasurer (24 June 1913 – 17 September 1914) in the Cook government, Treasurer (17 February 1917–27 March 1918) in the Hughes government. Forrest had been Premier of Western Australia 1890–1901.

Frazer, Charles Edward

Labor Member of the House of Representatives 1903–13 (Kalgoorlie), minister without portfolio (29 April 1910 – 14 October 1911) and Postmaster-General (14 October 1911 – 24 June 1913) in the second government of Andrew Fisher. In this portfolio Frazer introduced the first Commonwealth postage stamp, and became the first minister to fly in an aeroplane.

Gardiner, Albert

Labor Senator for New South Wales 1910–26 and in 1928, Vice-President of the Executive Council (17 September 1914 – 27 October 1916) during the third government of Andrew Fisher and the Hughes government. Gardiner was expelled from the Labor Party for his opposition to the Jack Lang faction in 1927. He had been a New South Wales parliamentarian 1891–95.

Garran, (Sir) Robert Randolph

Appointed first head of the Attorney-General’s department and parliamentary draftsman on 1 January 1901, Garran remained in this post until 5 February 1932. He served the governments of ten prime ministers, Barton, Deakin, Watson, Reid, Fisher, Cook, Hughes, Bruce, Scullin and Lyons. As a young Sydney federationist in Barton’s circle, Garran had been secretary to the 1897–98 Constitutional drafting committee.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 396.

George V, King

Grandson of Queen Victoria, son of King Edward VII, as Duke of York opened first Commonwealth parliament in 1901, with Queen Mary British monarch 1910–36.

Glassey, Thomas

Protectionist Senator for Queensland 1901–03. A founder of the Labor Party in Queensland in 1892 and of the Nationalist Party in 1917, Glassey had been a Queensland parliamentarian 1888–93 and 1894–1901.

Glynn, Patrick McMahon

Member of the House of Representatives 1901–03 (South Australia) and 1903–19 (Angas). Glynn was a member of the Free Trade Party 1901–06, the Anti-Socialist Party 1906–10, the Deakin Liberal Party 1910–17 and the Nationalist Party 1917–19. Attorney-General in the third Deakin government (2 June 1909 – 29 April 1910), Minister for External Affairs in the Cook government (24 June 1913 – 17 September 1914), and Minister for Home and Territories in the Hughes government (17 February 1917–3 February 1920). As a South Australian parliamentarian and federationist, Glynn was an influential delegate at the 1897–98 federation convention.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 3.

Golding, Annie Mackenzie

Member of the Womanhood Suffrage League of New South Wales and the Women’s Progressive Association in New South Wales. Like her sister Kate Dwyer a Labor Party activist in the first decades of the Commonwealth.

Goldstein, Vida

Victorian suffragist, political reformer, and pacifist, Goldstein was among the few women to contest federal elections before 1920. She stood unsuccessfully for a Senate seat in 1903 and in the four elections 1910-17. Goldstein also worked for the British and United States suffrage organisations. She marched with Margaret Fisher in the major suffrage demonstration in London in 1911. The Hughes government ordered surveillance of her activities against conscription in 1915-17 and in 1919, with Cecilia John, she was Australian delegate to the women’s peace conference held in Zurich simultaneously with the Versailles Conference.

Griffin, Walter Burley

United States architect who, with Marion Mahoney Griffin, provided the original design for Australia’s national capital in 1913, but was removed as architectural director in 1920.

Griffith, (Sir) Samuel Walker

First Chief Justice of the High Court 1903–19, Griffith had attended the 1890 Federation Conference and was a major figure in drafting the original Constitution at the 1891 federation Convention. He was Premier of Queensland 1883–88, and Queensland Chief Justice 1893–1903.

Groom, (Sir) Littleton Ernest

Member of the House of Representatives (Darling Downs) 1901–29 and 1931–36, Groom was Minister for Home Affairs and then Attorney-General (12 October 1906 – 13 November 1908) replacing Isaac Isaacs in the second Deakin government, Minister for External Affairs in the third Deakin government (2 June 1909 – 29 April 1910), and Minister for Trade and Customs in the Cook government (24 June 1913 – 17 September 1914). In the Hughes government he served as honorary Minister (17 February 1917 – 16 November 1917), Vice-President of the Executive Council (16 November 1917–27 March 1918), Minister for Works and Railways (27 March 1918 – 21 December 1921), and Attorney-General (21 December 1921 – 9 February 1923). In the Bruce–Page government he was Attorney-General (9 February 1923 – 18 December 1925), Minister for Trade and Customs and Minister for Health (29 May – 13 June 1924). From 1926–29 he was Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Hardie, James Keir

Socialist/Labour Member of the House of Commons 1892–95 and 1900–15, leader of Britain’s parliamentary Labour Party 1906–08, a pacifist and a strong supporter of women’s suffrage.

Higgins, Henry Bournes

Protectionist Member of the House of Representatives 1901–06 (North Melbourne), and Attorney-General in the Watson Labor government (1904). In 1906 Higgins was appointed a judge of the High Court, with the special duty of presiding over the Conciliation and Arbitration Court. As a federationist and member of the Victorian parliament, Higgins had been a delegate to the 1897–98 federation convention.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 180.

Hinchcliffe, Albert

Trades union organiser, a founder of the Labor Party in Queensland in 1892, a Queensland parliamentarian 1904–22 and business manager of the Labor newspaper Australian Worker.

Holman, William Arthur

United Australia Party member of House of Representatives 1931–34 (Martin). A backbencher in the Lyons government, Holman was a former Premier of New South Wales (1913–20) and state parliamentarian 1898–1917 (Labor) and 1917–1920 (Nationalist). In 1911 Holman had been a powerful opponent of the Fisher government’s referendum seeking greater Commonwealth powers over industry, trade and commerce. With JC Watson, Joseph Cook and WM Hughes, he had been a founding member of the New South Wales Labor Electoral League in 1891.

Hughes, (Dame) Mary

Prime ministerial wife 1915–23.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 943.

Hughes, William Morris

Member of the House of Representatives 1901–17 (West Sydney), 1917–22 (Bendigo), 1922–49 (North Sydney) and 1949–52 (Bradfield). Hughes was a member of the Labor Party 1901–17, the Nationalist Party 1917–29, an ‘Independent Nationalist’ 1929–31, United Australia Party 1931–44, Liberal Party 1944–52. Prime Minister (1915–23), Hughes still holds the record as Australia’s longest serving parliamentarian. He was a Minister in the governments of Watson (1904), Fisher (1908–09, 1910–13 and 1914–15), Lyons (1932–39), Page (Attorney-General, Minister for Industry and Minister for External Affairs (7 April 1939 – 26 April 1939), Menzies (Attorney-General 26 April 1939 – 29 August 1941, Minister for Industry 26 April 1939 – 28 October 1940, Minister for the Navy 28 October 1940 – 29 August 1941), and Fadden (continuing as Attorney-General and Minister for the Navy 29 August 1941 – 7 October 1941). During the term of his own government he also served as Attorney-General (27 October 1915 – 21 December 1921), Minister for Trade and Customs (29 September 1916 – 14 November 1916), Minister for External Affairs (21 December 1921 – 9 February 1923). As a New South Wales parliamentarian 1894–1901 Hughes was a founding member of the Labor Party in New South Wales. He became a founding member of the Nationalist Party in 1917, the United Australia Party in 1931, and the Liberal Party in 1945.

Read more about William Morris Hughes.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 290.

Hume-Cook, James Newton Haxton

Protectionist Member of the House of Representatives 1901–10 (Bourke) and minister without portfolio (28 January – 13 November 1908) in the second Deakin government. Hume Cook was a firm Deakinite and a member of the Australian Natives Association, and had been a Victorian parliamentarian and federationist. From the 1914–18 war he was loyal friend of WM Hughes, and the prominent secretary of the Australian Industries Protection League from 1922–41.

Hunt, Arthur Atlee

Founding head of two Commonwealth departments, External Affairs (1901–1916) and Home and Territories (1916–1921). Hunt was the first Public Service arbitrator, serving from 1921 until he retired in 1930. He had been a member of Edmund Barton’s circle of federationists in Sydney in the 1890s.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 716.

Hutchinson, James

Labor Party Member of the House of Representatives 1903–09 (Hindmarsh), minister without portfolio 13 November 1908 – 2 June 1909.

Irvine, Margaret

See Fisher, Margaret

Isaacs, (Sir) Isaac Alfred

The first Australian-born Governor-General, serving from 22 January 1931 until his retirement on 23 January 1936, Isaacs had been a Protectionist Member of the House of Representatives 1901–06 (Indi), and Attorney-General (5 July 1905 – 12 October 1906) in the second Deakin government. He was a judge of the High Court for 25 years, serving as Chief Justice 1930–31. Isaacs had also been a Victorian parliamentarian from 1892–1901 and a delegate to the 1897–98 federation convention.

Jensen, Jens August

Member of the House of Representatives (Bass) for the Labor Party 1910–17 and for the Nationalist Party 1917–19. Assistant Minister (17 September – 12 July 1915) and Minister for the Navy (12 July – 27 October 1915) in Andrew Fisher’s third government, Minister for the Navy (27 October 1915 – 17 February 1917) and Minister for Trade and Customs (17 February 1917 – 13 December 1918) in the Hughes government.

John, Cecelia Annie

Anti-conscriptionist and pacifist, with Vida Goldstein formed the Women’s Peace Army in 1915 calling for the abolition of conscription and militarism. In 1919 an Australian delegate at the Women’s International Peace Conference in Zurich. John worked for the International Red Cross, and formed the Australian Save the Children Fund. She had been a Victorian suffragist and member of the Women’s Political Association.

Lloyd-George, David

Liberal member of Britain’s House of Commons 1890–1945 and Prime Minister 1916–22, when WM Hughes was Prime Minister of Australia, and during the terms of George Reid and Andrew Fisher as High Commissioner in London.

Macdonald, Ramsay

Labour member of the House of Commons from 1906, and Prime Minister of Britain’s first Labour government in 1924. Macdonald was also Prime Minister in 1929–35, during the Bruce, Scullin, and Lyons governments. He had visited Australia in 1906, and met both James Scullin and John Curtin at Labor gatherings in Victoria.

Mahon, Hugh

Labor Member of the House Representatives 1901–13 (Coolgardie), and 1913–17 and 1919–20 (Kalgoorlie). Mahon was Postmaster-General in the government of JC Watson (27 April – 18 August 1904), and Minister for Home Affairs in Andrew Fisher’s first government (13 November 1908 – 2 June 1909). He was Fisher’s Minister for External Affairs in his third term (17 September 1914 – 27 October 1915) and in WM Hughes Labor government (27 October 1915 – 14 November 1916). In 1920 Hugh Mahon became the only member ever expelled from the federal parliament, after he had attacked British policy in Ireland at a public meeting.

McGregor, Gregor

Labor Senator for South Australia 1901–1914, Vice-President of the Executive Council in the Watson government (27 April – 17 August 1904), and during the first two terms of Andrew Fisher (13 November 1908 – 2 June 1909 and 29 April 1910 – 24 June 1913). McGregor had been a South Australian Labor parliamentarian 1894–1901.

Miller, David

First head of the Department of Home Affairs in November 1901, and administrator of the Federal Capital Territory (ACT) from 1912 until his retirement in 1917. Colonel Miller had been commander of the New South Wales Corps 1900–01 in the Boer War.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 278.

Miller, Emma

An organiser for the Australian Workers Union in western Queensland in the 1890s and the first woman member of the Brisbane Workers Political Organisation, Miller championed equal pay and equal opportunity for women and was foundation president of the Women’s Equal Franchise Association (1894–1905). In 1908 she was a delegate to the federal Labor Party conference, and in 1916 a delegate to the Australian Peace Alliance conference. In her late seventies Miller campaigned against the conscription referendums in 1916–17.

Munro Ferguson, (Sir) Ronald Craufurd (Viscount Novar)

Governor-General of Australia 18 May 1914 – 6 October 1920.

Murdoch, (Sir) Keith Arthur

Newspaper proprietor and founder of the Australian Journalists Association (1910), the cable service Australian Associated Press (1935), and Australian Newsprint Mills (1938). David Syme had given Murdoch a job on the Age newspaper in 1904, and in 1908 Alfred Deakin, then Prime Minister, provided him with letters of introduction in London. As Commonwealth parliamentary reporter for the Age 1910–12, he became a friend of Andrew Fisher and WM Hughes. Political correspondent for the Sydney Sun from 1912, he was transferred to London in 1915 and secretly reported to Fisher from Gallipoli on the mismanagement of the Anzac campaign. He was the only Australian journalist at the peace conference at Versailles in 1919, and returned to Melbourne as chief editor of the Herald in 1920. With financial support from Clive Baillieu and others, by 1935 he had acquired newspapers in Sydney, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth, and eleven commercial radio stations. In 1940 RG Menzies appointed him wartime director-general of information, a short-lived post. He retired in 1949 and died in 1952, leaving his media holdings to his son Keith Rupert Murdoch.

O’Connor, Richard Edward

Protectionist Senator for New South Wales 1901–03 and first Vice-President of the Executive Council (1 January 1901 – 24 September 1903), O’Connor was on the bench of the first High Court from 1903 until his death in 1912. A federalist and lifelong friend of Edmund Barton, O’Connor had been one of the three lawyers comprising the committee drafting the Constitution Bill at the 1897–98 Federation Convention.

O’Malley, King

Labor Member of the House of Representatives 1901–03 (Tasmania) and 1903–17 (Darwin), Minister for Home Affairs in the second Fisher government (29 April 1910 – 24 June 1913), and from 27 October 1915 – 14 November 1916 in the Hughes Labor government. Born in North America, O’Malley had settled in Tasmania, and was active as a federalist and parliamentarian there.

Pearce, (Sir) George Foster

Senator for Western Australia 1901–38, Pearce was a member of the Labor Party 1901–17, the Nationalist Party 1917–31, and the United Australia Party 1931– 38. He was Minister of Defence in the three governments of Andrew Fisher (13 November 1908 – 2 June 1909; 29 April 1910 – 24 June 1913 and 17 September 1914 – 27 October 1915). In the Hughes government he was Minister for Defence (27 October 1915 – 21 December 1921) and Minister for Home and Territories (21 December 1921 – 9 February 1923). With Hughes, Pearce left the Labor Party over the conscription issue in 1917 and formed the Nationalist Party. In the Bruce–Page government Pearce was Minister for Home and Territories (9 February 1923 – 18 June 1926), and Vice-President of the Executive Council (18 June 1926 – 22 October 1929). From 1929 to 1931 Pearce led Opposition members in the Senate, he was then Minister for Defence (6 January 1932 – 12 October 1934), Minister for External Affairs and Minister for Territories (12 October 1934 – 29 November 1937), in the Lyons government. In 1939 Pearce was a member of the Commonwealth Grants Commission.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 151.

Reid, (Dame) Florence

Prime ministerial wife 1904–05.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 942.

Reid, Sir George Houstoun

Free Trade/Anti-Socialist Party Member of the House of Representatives 1901–10 (East Sydney) and Prime Minister and Minister for External Affairs 1904–05, Reid was also Leader of the Opposition 1901–04 and 1905–08. From 1910–16 he was Australian High Commissioner in London, and from 1916 until his death in 1918 a member of the British House of Commons. Reid had also served in the New South Wales parliament 1880–84 and 1885–1901, and was Premier in 1894–99.

Read more about George Reid.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 712.

Roberts, Ernest Alfred

Labor Member of the House of Representatives 1908–13 (Adelaide), minister without portfolio 23 October 1911 – 24 June 1913.

Russell, Edward (Teddy) John

Labor Party Senator for Victoria 1907–25. Assistant Minister (17 September 1914 – 27 October 1915) in the third Fisher government, assistant Minister (27 October 1915 – 17 February 1917) and Honorary Minister (17 February 1917 – 17 January 1919), Vice-President of the Executive Council (27 March 1918 – 21 December 1921) in the Hughes government.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 679.

Ryan, Thomas Joseph

Labor Member of the House of Representatives 1919–21 (West Sydney), Ryan had been a Queensland parliamentarian 1909–21 and Premier 1915–19.

Ryland, George

Queensland trades unionist, elected to the seat of Gympie in the Queensland parliament with his friend Andrew Fisher in 1899. Ryland was later appointed by the Fisher government as Director of Lands, Northern Territory, serving from 1912 to 1914.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 325.

Scott, Rose

Political reformer and founding member of the Womanhood Suffrage League of New South Wales in 1891, the National Council of Women (NSW) in 1896, and the Women’s Political Educational League in 1902. Scott was a prominent anti-conscriptionist.

Scrivener, Charles

Surveyor of the Federal Capital Territory in 1911.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 33.

Scullin, James Henry

Member of the House of Representatives 1910–13 and 1922–49 (Yarra). Prime Minister, Minister for External Affairs and Minister for Industry 1929–32, Treasurer 1930–31.

Read more about James Scullin.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 63.

Shepherd, Malcolm Lindsay

First head of the Department of the Prime Minister 1911–21; official secretary to the High Commissioner in London 1921–27; and head of the Department of Defence 1927–37. Shepherd had been recruited to the new Commonwealth Postmaster-General’s Department in 1901 from the New South Wales department he had joined as a typist in 1890. In 1904 he became private secretary to Alfred Deakin, then to prime ministers JC Watson, George Reid, and Andrew Fisher. He became a friend of WM Hughes, and while at the High Commission was Australian representative on the Pacific Cable Board and the Imperial War Graves Commission.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 25.

Spence, William Guthrie

Labor Party Member of the House of Representatives 1901–17 (Darling) and Nationalist Party Member of the House of Representatives 1917–19 (Darwin). Postmaster-General (17 September 1914 – 27 October 1915) in the third Fisher government, Vice-President of the Executive Council (14 November 1916 – 17 February 1917) in the Hughes government.

Thomas, Josiah

Labor Party Member of the House of Representatives 1901–17 and Nationalist Party member 1917 (Barrier). Postmaster-General in the first Fisher government (13 November 1908 – 2 June 1909), Postmaster-General (29 April 1910 – 14 October 1911) and Minister for External Affairs (14 October 1911 – 24 June 1913) in the second Fisher government.

Tudor, Francis (Frank) Gwynne

Labor Party Member of the House of Representatives 1901–22 (Yarra), and Minister for Trade and Customs in the three governments of Andrew Fisher (13 November 1908 – 2 June 1909, 29 April 1910 – 24 June 1913, and 17 September 1914 – 27 October 1915) and from 27 October 1915 – 14 September 1916 in the Labor government of WM Hughes. Tudor resigned from Hughes’ Cabinet over the conscription issue and replaced Hughes as leader of the federal parliamentary Labor Party after Hughes’ expulsion from the Labor Party in November 1916. He was leader until his death on 10 January 1922.

Watson, Ada

Prime ministerial wife April to August 1904.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 933.

Watson, John Christian (Chris)

Labor Party Member of the House of Representatives 1901–06 (Bland) and 1906–10 (South Sydney), Watson was first Labor Prime Minister, and Treasurer, for four months in 1904.

Read more about Chris Watson.

National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 711.

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